International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive 2019-08-09T05:52:54+0530 Mr. M A Naidu Open Journal Systems <p>International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Archive (IJPBA) is published bimonthly by the Mandsaur University, Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh, India. The journal publishes original reviews, original research articles, and short communications. The scope of the journal is to meet the need of sciences and pharmacy. It is essential that authors prepare their manuscripts according to established specifications. Failure to follow them may result in papers being delayed or rejected. Therefore, contributors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission. The manuscripts should be checked carefully for grammatical errors. All papers are subjected to peer review. Manuscripts could be submitted online from</p> <p>The character of the publications:</p> <ul type="disc"> <li class="show">&nbsp;Scientific Biology <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Anatomy</li> <li class="show">Microbiology</li> <li class="show">Morphology</li> <li class="show">Taxonomy</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </li> <li class="show">Chemistry <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Analytical chemistry</li> <li class="show">Polymer chemistry</li> <li class="show">Spectroscopy</li> </ul> </li> <li class="show">Medicine <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Diabetology</li> <li class="show">Pharmacology and Pharmacy</li> <li class="show">Scientific disciplines:</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </li> </ul> p53 Protein: Master Regulator of Apoptosis and its Application in Cancer Therapy 2019-08-09T05:26:07+0530 Chiragkumar J. Gohil <p>Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled and abnormal cells growth. In the body, the cell growth and cell<br>division are governing by apoptosis. The process of apoptosis is mainly regulated by the p53 protein. p53<br>is a tumor suppressor protein. The amount of p53 in a cell is mainly controlled by the negative regulator<br>murine double minute 2 (MDM2), which on complex formation with p53 leads to an overall reduction<br>of the p53 level. Inhibition of p53 function will inhibit the apoptosis and leads to cancer. Consequently,<br>inhibition of the MDM2/p53 interaction using the small molecules activates the p53 function and apoptosis<br>in the cells which contain the wild-type p53. It is a promising new therapeutic strategy for the treatment<br>of cancers retaining wild-type p53. However, the safety window of this class of compounds must be<br>evaluated. Moreover, it has to require the development of compounds, which can also be able to target the<br>cells which contain the mutated or deleted p53.</p> 2019-08-09T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Molecular Modeling of Metalloreductase STEAP2 Protein and Docking Interaction Studies: An In Silico Study 2019-08-09T05:32:45+0530 Shravan Kumar Gunda <p>This gene is an individual from the STEAP family and encodes a multipass film protein that confines to the Golgi complex, the plasma layer, and the vesicular cylindrical structures in the cytosol. A very comparative protein in mouse has both ferrireductase and cupric reductase action and invigorates the cell take-up of both iron and copper in vitro. Expanded transcriptional articulation of the human quality is related with prostate malignant growth movement. Substitute transcriptional graft variations, encoding distinctive isoforms, have been described. Therefore, in the present study, we generated a precise three-dimensional (3D) model of metalloreductase STEAP2 protein using MODELLER 9.21 and validated its structure using PROCHECK software. Modeled protein contains more than 94.5% of amino acids in core region. We interpreted the action of natural compounds docking against the modeled metalloreductase STEAP2 protein. Three compounds (ginkgetin, medicagenin, and erybraedin A) showed lower binding affinity values toward metalloreductase STEAP2 protein compared to mitoxantrone, abiraterone acetate, apalutamide, enzalutamide, and flutamide. Ginkgetin exhibited the lowest binding energy of −9.10 kcal/mol with interacting Trp212 and Thr210. All the 17 compounds showed excellent binding energies than standard drugs for the modeled metalloreductase STEAP2 protein. These computational studies can be helpful to discover novel drug candidates.</p> 2019-08-09T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Characterization of Self-Microemulsifying Dosage Form: Special Emphasis on Zeta Potential Measurement 2019-08-09T05:36:13+0530 Nilesh S. Kulkarni nileshpcist@gmail.comto <p>The emulsion is a disperse system which is thermodynamically unstable. To improve the stability of the disperse system microemulsion or nanoemulsion was prepared to improve thermodynamic stability. Zeta potential is a physical property which is exhibited by any particle in suspension/emulsion, i.e., in colloidal dispersion. It can be used to optimize the formulations of suspensions and emulsions. Zeta potential is the measure of overall charges acquired by particles in a particular medium and is considered as one of the benchmarks of stability of the colloidal system. As a rule of thumb, suspensions/dispersed system with zeta potential above 30 mV (absolute value) are physically stable. Suspensions with a potential above 60 mV show excellent stability. Suspensions below 20 mV are of limited stability; below 5 mV they undergo pronounced aggregation if the system is stabilized by the electrostatic mechanism. If the values are low for visually stable emulsions, it could be attributed to steric repulsion between approaching molecules, i.e., system is sterically stabilized. Such sterically stabilized colloidal systems though they have low zeta potential values are found to be stable during storage. Tween is well accepted steric stabilizer for colloidal systems. Stability of such a visually stable emulsion or microemulsions should be carried out under accelerated or long-term stability conditions to confirm the globule size and zeta potential on aging.</p> 2019-08-09T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence of Hyperuricemia at Birat Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Biratnagar, Nepal 2019-08-09T05:38:01+0530 Dr. Amar Kumar Sinha <p>Serum uric acid (SUA) and the prevalence of hyperuricemia have been increasing both in developing and developed countries over the past decades. Recent studies suggest that hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Although the incidence of gout in Nepalese adults is increasing, epidemiologic studies on hyperuricemia in the general Nepalese population are limited. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of hyperuricemia at Birat Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Biratnagar, Nepal. A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted from December 2015 to November 2016. A total of 1513 (507 males and 625 females) outpatient department from Birat Medical College Teaching Hospital, Biratnagar, Nepal, were participated in this survey. Total subject was investigated for SUA by uricase/phenol-aminophenazone (PAP) method. SUA concentration of &gt;7 mg/dl in men and &gt;6 mg/dl in women was considered as hyperuricemia. Overall prevalence of hyperuricemia among the total population (1513) was 25.18%. Among hyperuricemia population, the prevalence of men and women was 25.33% and 25.05%, respectively. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was high in young Nepalese adults of age &lt;20 years (39.53% in men and 35.06% in female). Similarly, &gt;60 years age group, hyperuricemia in men and women was 32.85% and 28.88%, respectively. The prevalence of hyperuricemia among &lt;20 years age group was relatively high followed by &gt;60 years age group. There was high prevalence of hyperuricemia among the men compare to women of these populations of Biratnagar, Nepal.</p> 2019-08-09T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Rapid Reverse-phase High-performance Liquid Chromatography Estimation of Methotrexate in Bulk, Pharmaceutical Preparation and in Spiked Plasma Samples 2019-08-09T05:39:48+0530 Ashish Agrawal <p>A simple, sensitive, and selective reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection for the estimation of methotrexate in pharmaceutical formulation and in spiked plasma developed and validated in the present work. Chromatographic separation of drug is performed with a 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm diameter particles RP C-18 column and the mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol and water (80:20, v/v), containing 0.1% HPLC-grade glacial acetic acid for the adjustment of pH to 4.5. Isocratic elution at a flow rate of 1 ml/min with UV detection at 256 nm at ambient temperature is used in this method. The proposed RP-HPLC method is successfully applied for the determination of methotrexate in pharmaceutical preparation and spiked plasma samples. The validation studies are carried out and it’s fulfilling ICH requirements. The method is found to be specific, linear, precise (including both intra- and inter-day precision), accurate, and robust. This proposed method may represent a valuable aid in the laboratory monitoring of the toxicity of anticancer chemotherapy.</p> 2019-08-09T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation, Characterization, and Evaluation of Topical Anti-inflammatory Herbal Gel 2019-08-09T05:42:06+0530 Dr. Rasika D. Bhalke <p>The aim of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate topical gel containing capsaicinoid and/or aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens L. (AETP) leaves and/or aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves. First gel base was prepared using various different concentrations of Carbopol-934, propylene glycol 400, methylparaben, and propylparaben and required amount of distilled water. The optimized base was selected for the incorporation of capsaicinoid and AETP. Then, skin pH (6.8–7) was maintained by dropwise addition of triethanolamine. Prepared formulations were evaluated for physical appearance, pH, spreadability, viscosity, and homogeneity. Prepared formulations have proceeded for skin irritation on the animal model (rabbit). All gels were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model on Albino Wistar rats of either sex (150–200 g). Change in edema volume of the rat hind paw was measured, and percent inhibition was calculated. Stability studies have meted out as per the ICH guidelines for 3 months at different temperatures and humidity. Results reveal that all formulations have shown good appearance, homogeneity, and spreadability. The viscosity of all formulations is ranging between 3500 and 5000 centipoises. All formulations have shown no skin irritation, i.e., erythema and edema to animals. Formulations F1, F2, and F3 have shown significant (P&lt;0.001) anti-inflammatory activity and shown significant inhibition of the inflammation to the extent of 42.37%, 55.93%, and 45.76% at 3 h and 68%, 69.33%, and 54.67% at 4 h, respectively, while the reference drug; diclofenac sodium reduced the inflammation by 59.32% at 3 h and 74.67% at 4 h.</p> 2019-08-09T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of the Prevalence of Proactive Penicillin Allergy Testing in Patients Labeled as Penicillin Allergic in Dhanusadham District of Nepal 2019-08-09T05:45:11+0530 Dr. Rajesh Chandra Das <p>This study aims to promote penicillin allergy testing in an outpatient to penicillin allergy and educate both patients and clinicians about testing. Patients with a history of penicillin allergy were screened for penicillin allergy testing. The results of allergy testing and patient satisfaction after testing were the main outcomes. A total of 82 patients were recruited, although only 37 actually underwent testing. None of these 37 had a positive skin test and none of 36 had a positive oral challenge (one refused it). Following testing, 2 patients (5%) had subjective reactions within 24 h. Three (10%) were subsequently treated with a beta-lactam, and all reported that testing provided important information to their medical history. In conclusion, the penicillin allergy testing safely evaluates patients labeled as penicillin allergic. It is well tolerated and embraced by the patients who undergo testing. In our study, none of the patients tested had an allergic reaction, but we identified multiple barriers to developing a protocol for testing patients from the primary care setting.</p> 2019-08-09T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Simultaneous Equation and Area Under the Curve Spectrophotometric Methods for Estimation of Ranolazine Hydrochloride Presence of its Base-induced Degradation Product: A Comparative Study 2019-08-09T05:46:45+0530 Dr. Rahul H. Khiste <p>Two simple spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the determination of ranolazine hydrochloride in the presence of its base-induced degradation product, namely simultaneous equation method using two wavelengths of 272 and 249 nm method (A) and area under the curve method using two wavelength ranges of 267–277 nm and 244–254 nm method (B). The accuracy, precision, and linearity ranges of the planned methods were firm. The methods were validated and the specificity was assessed by analyzing synthetic mixtures containing the drug and it’s degradant. The two methods were useful for the determination of the cited drug in its pharmaceutical preparation and the obtained results were statistically compared with those of a reported method. The comparison shows that there is no important difference between the proposed methods and the reported method about both accuracy and precision.</p> 2019-08-09T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## “Synthesis, Characterization, and Antipsychotic Evaluation of Some Aryl Piperazine Congeners” 2019-08-09T05:48:36+0530 Darakhshan Gazala Bari <p>In this proposal research work aryl piperazine derivatives will be synthesised because aryl piperazine currently the most important building blocks in drug discovery with a high number of positive hits encountered in biological screens of this heterocyclic and its congeners. A series N-(4-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)phenyl)-2-[4- (arylsubstituted)piperazines-1-yl]acetamide and N-(4-(benzo[d]oxazol-2-yl)phenyl)-2-[4-(arylsubstituted)piperazines-1-yl]acetamide will be synthesized with different aryl piperzine substituents and their characterization such as melting point determination and Thin layer chromatography (TLC) also performed. After that pharmacological evaluation will be done for synthesized compounds. In pharmacological evaluation the antipsychotic activity determined by behaviour symptoms, Inhibition of 5-hydoxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced head twitches behavior and Induction of catalepsy.</p> 2019-08-09T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Selective Study on Decolorization of Textile Azo Dye using Genetically Modified Brown-Rot Fungi 2019-08-09T05:52:54+0530 Dr. S. Chacko Vijai Sharma <p>Aim: Bioremediation of textile effluents using microorganisms can transfer toxic dyestuffs into non-toxic. Moreover, the discovery of the value of brown-rot fungi in bioremediation has brought a great success in this field. Molecular biology related to brown-rot fungi, especially related to the extraction of genetic material (RNA and DNA), gene cloning, and the construction of genetically engineered microorganisms is especially attractive and thus investigated in recent years. Steam-assisted dry gel conversion of tetraethyl orthosilicate and sodium aluminate to ZSM-5 and ZSM-5 activated carbon composite. Result: The resulting material exhibited hierarchical pore structure with high surface area and porosity as characterized by X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption. The addition of activated carbon enhanced the surface area and adsorption percentage of aqueous lead (Pb2+) and cadmium (Cd2+) from aqueous solution and further from industrial effluents. Conclusion: The co-ordination of the alumina incorporated was analyzed using Al magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance. ZSM-5/activated carbon composite with high crystallinity was obtained which exhibited high adsorption rates when compared to ZSM-5, activated carbon individually, and their mechanical mixtures.</p> 2019-08-09T00:00:00+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement##