International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive 2019-01-18T22:49:52+00:00 Mr. M A Naidu Open Journal Systems <div> <p>International Journal of Pharmaceutical &amp; Biological Archive(IJPBA) is published bimonthly by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Mandsaur University,Mandsaur</a>, Madhya Pradesh, INDIA. The Journal publishes Original reviews, Original research articles and short communications. The scope of the journal is to meet the need of Sciences and Pharmacy. It is essential that authors prepare their manuscripts according to established specifications. Failure to follow them may result in papers being delayed or rejected. Therefore, contributors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission. The manuscripts should be checked carefully for grammatical errors. All papers are subjected to peer review. Manuscripts could be submitted online from <a href="/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>Character of the publications:</p> <ul type="disc"> <li class="show">&nbsp;Scientific Biology <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Anatomy</li> <li class="show">Microbiology</li> <li class="show">Morphology</li> <li class="show">Taxonomy</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </li> <li class="show">Chemistry <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Analytical chemistry</li> <li class="show">Polymer chemistry</li> <li class="show">Spectroscopy</li> </ul> </li> <li class="show">Medicine <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Diabetology</li> <li class="show">Pharmacology and Pharmacy</li> <li class="show">Scientific disciplines:</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </li> </ul> </div> Application of Cow and Goat Urine in Traditional Systems of Medicines: A Brief Review 2019-01-18T22:20:58+00:00 Dr. Hemanta Kumar Sharma <p>In spite of the progresses in science and technology, India is well-known for its traditional system of medicine. Traditional use of medicine is practiced since the era of vedic. The Indian traditional system of medicine such as Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani has a very rich history of their effectiveness. As India is a rich repository of herbal and medicinal plants, these traditional systems of medicine use herbal plants and minerals as the vital source for drugs. Along with the use of herbal plants, the Indian traditional system of medicine, especially Ayurvedic system, uses animal urine as a source of drug. In Ayurveda, the properties of the urine of eight different animals along with the human urine and also its uses are described. Basically, cow’s urine (CU) is used mainly for the treatment of various diseases in Ayurveda. Apart from CU, urine of the other animals such as goat, sheep, buffalo, elephant, horse, camel, and donkey were also used as remedies for the treatment of different diseases. An attempt has been made in this article to bring forth the traditional and therapeutic use of cow and goat urine (GU) and also highlights its efficacy. This article will provide brief information on cow and GU and their application in traditional practice of medicine which may help people working in this area.</p> 2019-01-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: A Strategy to Improve Oral Delivery of the Biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) Class II Drugs 2019-01-18T22:24:23+00:00 Hitesh Kumar <p>In drug discovery, approximately 70% of new drug candidates have shown poor aqueous solubility<br>in recent years. Currently, approximately 40% of the marketed immediate release (IR) oral drugs are<br>categorized as practically insoluble (&lt;100 g/mL). The aqueous solubility of a drug is a critical determinant<br>of its dissolution rate. The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) is a useful tool for decisionmaking<br>in formulation development from a biopharmaceutical point of view. BCS Class II drugs are<br>identified as low solubility and high permeability. In general, the bioavailability of a BCS Class II drug is<br>rate limited by its dissolution so that even a small increase in dissolution rate sometimes results in a large<br>increase in bioavailability. Therefore, an enhancement of the dissolution rate of the drug is thought to be<br>a key factor for improving the bioavailability of BCS Class II drugs. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs)<br>were developed in the mid-1980s as an alternative system to the existing traditional carriers (emulsions,<br>liposomes, microparticles, and their polymeric counterparts) when Speiser prepared the first micro- and<br>nano-particles (named nano pellets) made up of solid lipids for oral administration. SLNs are colloidal<br>carriers made up of lipids that remain solid at room temperature and body temperature and also offer unique<br>properties such as small size (50–500 nm), large surface area, high drug loading, and the interaction of<br>phases at the interfaces and are attractive for their potential to improve performance of pharmaceuticals,<br>nutraceuticals, and other materials. Moreover, SLN are less toxic than other nanoparticulate systems<br>due to their biodegradable and biocompatible nature. SLN is capable of encapsulating hydrophobic<br>and hydrophilic drugs, and they also provide protection against chemical, photochemical, or oxidative<br>degradation of drugs, as well as the possibility of a sustained release of the incorporated drugs.</p> 2019-01-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Allelopathic Effect of Leaf Extract of Ochlandra travancorica on the Germination of Cicer arietinum 2019-01-18T22:26:31+00:00 S. A. Nisha <p>In the present investigation, aqueous extracts prepared from fresh leaf and dry leaf of Ochlandra travancorica showed inhibitory effects on seed germination in Cicer arietinum (Bengal gram), in different concentrations. The allelopathic effect of the fresh and dry leaf extracts of O. travancorica shows that it decreases the rate of seed germination in C. arietinum with an increase in the concentration of aqueous extracts. The maximum percentage of germination was recorded at control condition and the minimum percentage or no growth was recorded in 10%, 20%, 50%, and 100%. The germination rate at a concentration &lt;10% was taken for biochemical and phytochemical analysis. The biochemical components and some active constituents like the secondary metabolites in the shoot, leaf, and cotyledon were also analyzed. The pigment analysis of the germinated leaves was also undertaken. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect on the germination of seeds may be due to allelopathy and the allelochemicals present in the leaves of this bamboo species.</p> 2019-01-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of Some Novel Phthalimide Derivatives 2019-01-18T22:34:55+00:00 Tapan Kumar Maity <p>Objective: Different Phthalimide derivatives (4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2-[1,2,4]triazol-4-yl]-isoindole-1,3-dione derivatives) were synthesized and biological activities of them were evaluated. Materials and Methods: In the present study, four new phthalimide derivatives were synthesized. The structures of final compounds were characterized on the basis of spectral data. Then, biological evaluation of all the synthesized compounds means in vivo anticancer activity was evaluated on the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing Swiss albino mice model, and in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Results: The titled compounds (2A-2D) were found to reduce tumor volume, viable cell count and increase non-viable cell count, and percentage increase in life span. All compounds showed significant activity in quenching DPPH free radical. Conclusion: All compounds showed significant (P&lt;0.01) anticancer activity compared to EAC control group. All synthesized compound exhibited considerable antioxidant activity against free radicals, and they showed significant IC50 values and can, thus, ensure protection against oxidative stress.</p> 2019-01-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Protective Effect of Garlic Extract (Allium sativum L.) on the Liver Tissue of Arsenic-Induced Channa punctatus 2019-01-18T22:37:44+00:00 Titikksha Das <p>Arsenic in its inorganic form is toxic and can cause severe health effects including cancers. In several<br>in vitro experiments, arsenic exposure has shown multiple effects at the molecular level. However, the<br>proper understanding of the role of arsenic in the cause of these diseases is still limited. In this work, we<br>demonstrated the toxicity effect of sodium arsenite in the liver tissues of freshwater fish Channa punctatus<br>and observed the histopathological as well as surface ultrastructural changes on it. A simultaneous study<br>was performed to observe the protective effect of garlic extract (Allium sativum L.) on the liver tissue of<br>arsenic-induced C. punctatus. The liver tissue of the control group showed a normal histoarchitecture.<br>The arsenic-exposed liver tissue revealed hepatic lesions in the form of cloudy swelling of hepatocytes,<br>vacuolar degeneration, karyolysis, dilation of sinusoids, and nuclear hypertrophy. Lesser hepatic<br>alternation was observed in the liver tissue of arsenic-exposed C. punctatus concurrently treated with<br>garlic extract. The protective effect of garlic was shown in the normalization of hepatocytes in the<br>arsenic-induced liver tissue.</p> 2019-01-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wound Healing Potential of Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn. in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats 2019-01-18T22:39:44+00:00 Pooja Saini, <p>Aim of the Study: The aim is to study the evaluation of the wound healing properties of ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts of roots of Paspalum scrobiculatum in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg body weight) were administered orally to male Wistar albino rats. Streptozotocin was used to induce irreversible diabetes mellitus and excision wound healing method for determining wound healing activity for 21 days. Results: Ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts at different dose levels produced the decrease in fasting blood glucose in a dose-dependent manner. After 14 days, the maximum reduction in fasting blood glucose (211.00 mg/dl and 224.50 mg/dl) was observed in diabetic rats treated with ethanolic extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg dose, respectively. A momentary decrease in blood glucose level was also observed in the ethyl acetate extract-treated rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg. The maximum percentage contraction in wound area (27.60–98.51% and 24.13–93.96%) was observed in diabetic rats treated with ethanolic extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg dose, respectively, on the 15th day of 21 days’ study. Conclusion: The study reveals that P. scrobiculatum has wound healing activity along with antidiabetic activity, thereby mitigating its conventional uses and amplify it into an allopathic system of medicine.</p> 2019-01-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Bioactive Compound from Cashew Apple Juice by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrum Analysis 2019-01-18T22:41:30+00:00 P. Sivagurunathan <p>Cashew, Anacardiu moccidentale L. belongs to the family Anacardiaceae, it originates from south and central America. It produces a pseudocarp on which the nut is attached. This study was aimed to investigate the presence of bioactive phytochemical constitutions of A. moccidentale. A. moccidentale L. of methanolic extracts gives up to different phytocomponents was confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrum analysis. The bioactive compounds such as 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z)-, tetradecanoic acid, and 9-octadecadienoyl acid (Z, Z)- were also present in cashew apple (CA). However, these compounds are used in same ayurvedic medicine of antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticholesterol, and anticancer activities. The results ensured that the biowaste CA is a good source of various bioactive compounds which can be used to develop nutritious value-added food and beverages.</p> 2019-01-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biopotential Features and Pesticidal Study of Cascabela peruviana, Nerium oleander, and Mimusops elengi against Armyworm Spodoptera litura (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) and Pod Borer Larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) 2019-01-18T22:45:43+00:00 K. Palanisamy <p>To study the report, the different solvents of methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and acetone for Cascabela peruviana (C. peruviana), Nerium oleander (N. oleander), and Mimusops elengi (M. elengi) were used the experimental analysis in pest control of most dangerous notorious Lepidopteran pests of Spodoptera litura (S. litura) and Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera). The antifeedant activity of C. peruviana against S. litura 98.6%, H. armigera 94.6%, N. oleander against S. litura 94.2%, H. armigera 90.8% and M. elengi against S. litura 92.8%, H. armigera 86.4%. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50) and LC90 values of C. peruviana against S. litura, H. armigera the values are S. litura (LC50 = 88.3 and LC90 = 204.91) and H. armigera (LC50 = 103.19 and LC90 = 232.10), N. oleander against S. litura (LC50 = 102.10 and LC90 = 228.01) and H. armigera (LC50 = 121.10 and LC90 = 254.69) and M. elengi against S. litura (LC50 = 120.55 and LC90 = 250.43). The oviposition deterrent activity of C. peruviana against S. litura 90.8%, H. armigera 86.2%, N. oleander against S. litura 88.6%, H. armigera 82.8% and M. elengi against S. litura 78.2%, H. armigera 73.6%. When same species it is proof that methanol extract of C. peruviana, N. oleander, and M. elengi plant flower extracts was most effective insecticidal activity of armyworm S. litura and pod borer larvae of H. armigera. Performance of maximum antifeedant activity, lethal activity, and oviposition deterrent activity recorded in the methanol extract of C. peruviana than could be utilized in pest control program.</p> 2019-01-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Studies on the Influence of Temperature in Aquatic Anuran Population in Cauvery Delta Region of Tranquebar Taluk of Nagapattinam District, Tamil Nadu, India 2019-01-18T22:47:42+00:00 K. Karunakaran <p>Amphibian is one of the important ecosystem component, both the ecologically and economically. In the present study, we intended to analyze the population density based on the temperature in different months during the year 2016–2017. The data were collected by visual encounter survey method ,and amphibians were recorded in all 12 months from the study area for 2 years. The monthly variation habitat temperature was recorded in 2016–2017 using analysis of variance. In different habitat (cultivable, non-cultivable, pond, and grassland) temperature, the population was maximum at pond followed by grassland, agriculture, and non-cultivable. The maximum temperature was found in July with 74 numbers of species which were identified during 2016. Were recorded high number (1600) frog were recorded in pond 28°C during samba season followed by Thaladi and Kuruvai. Based on this study, we conclude that the population density may increase and decrease based on the temperature in all the three seasons with four microhabitats.</p> 2019-01-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Changes in the Hematology Parameters of Freshwater Fish Channa striatus Exposed to the Pesticide of Propargite 2019-01-18T22:49:52+00:00 S. Sivasuriyan <p>In the present study was sublethal concentrations of propargite pesticide administered to freshwater fish C. striatus for 96 hours propargite exposure is 0.34 parts per million (ppm) based on the period of (0.034ppm), (1.02ppm), 15 and 30 days about significantly (P &gt; 0.05) in hematological parameters alterations was recorded. The hematological analysis showed significant (P &gt; 0.05) reduction in red blood cell count, hemoglobin value, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), MCH concentration, and mean corpuscular volume. The parameters such as total white blood cells increased when induced toxic content. The present study indicated marked changes in the blood of C. striatus after exposure to propargite pesticide.</p> 2019-01-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##