International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive 2018-11-13T02:04:46+00:00 Mr. M A Naidu Open Journal Systems <div> <p>International Journal of Pharmaceutical &amp; Biological Archive(IJPBA) is published bimonthly by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Mandsaur University,Mandsaur</a>, Madhya Pradesh, INDIA. The Journal publishes Original reviews, Original research articles and short communications. The scope of the journal is to meet the need of Sciences and Pharmacy. It is essential that authors prepare their manuscripts according to established specifications. Failure to follow them may result in papers being delayed or rejected. Therefore, contributors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission. The manuscripts should be checked carefully for grammatical errors. All papers are subjected to peer review. Manuscripts could be submitted online from <a href="/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>Character of the publications:</p> <ul type="disc"> <li class="show">&nbsp;Scientific Biology <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Anatomy</li> <li class="show">Microbiology</li> <li class="show">Morphology</li> <li class="show">Taxonomy</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </li> <li class="show">Chemistry <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Analytical chemistry</li> <li class="show">Polymer chemistry</li> <li class="show">Spectroscopy</li> </ul> </li> <li class="show">Medicine <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Diabetology</li> <li class="show">Pharmacology and Pharmacy</li> <li class="show">Scientific disciplines:</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </li> </ul> </div> Study on 10 Medicinal Plants in Sundarban Region, West Bengal, India 2018-10-05T02:44:08+00:00 Goutam Mukhopadhyay <p>Modern approaches of ethnobotanical studies on various medicinal plants in Sundarban region are to<br>create awareness among the locality along with all over India. The aim of the studies of medicinal plants<br>will focus the cause and the help of treatment diseases. The investigation deals about 10 medicinal plants<br>which are used by local people throughout the Sundarban region. Ethnomedicinal plants information were<br>taken by the interview of ojha and local old villagers throughout the study period. In various villages of<br>this region, it is found that ethnobotanical medicinal plants are used to treat common problems (such as<br>injuries, stomachache, abdominal disorder, and skin problem). By the field visits and knowledge gather<br>from the villagers, the study is done to motivate further research on medicinal plants which may lead to<br>discovery of novel drugs in the fields of research and development study.</p> 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Oxadiazole and their Synthetic Analogues: An Updated Review 2018-10-21T23:11:22+00:00 Sonia Yadav <p>Oxadiazole and its tested derivatives with diverse pharmacological activities come under an important class of compounds in new drug development. The novel oxadiazole derivatives synthesized and investigated for their chemical and biological behavior has showed more importance in the recent era. In the previous studies, it was found that synthetic modification of oxadiazole ring has higher efficacy with improved potency and lesser toxicity. The present review provides an overview on the work done so far on oxadiazole and its biological activities (2008-2018).</p> 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review on Microbial Characteristic in Ganges Water 2018-10-05T02:50:25+00:00 Goutam Mukhopadhyay <p>This project is mainly done to detect the several growths of harmful microorganisms in river Ganga and their effect on human and other animals. The main criteria of the project are to check the microbial growth in water and their colony characteristics by performing the biochemical tests of the microorganisms. The assessment of the quality of water was done by performing several plots followed by MPN method and the different parameters obtained from them are pH, conductivity of water, DO and biochemical oxygen demand ranges of water, fecal coliform value, and total coliform value. The microorganisms that are generally causes of the pollution of river Ganga are Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Actinomyces sp., Aerobacter aerogenes, Arcobacter cloacae, Micrococcus sp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Shigella sp., Streptococcus faecalis, diplococcus sp., Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp., Clostridium welchii, and Bacillus anthracis. The another causes of pollution of Ganga River are human wastes and industrial hazards. The main criteria of the review are to create a concern throughout the people of India to stop the extensive misuse of River Ganga.</p> 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Red sage a Chinese Plant: A Review of Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies 2018-10-05T02:52:30+00:00 Abhilasha Mittal <p>Salvia splendens Linn. (Family: Lamiaceae), commonly known “Red sage” or “Scarlet sage,” has been used in the different traditional system of medicines for various ailments since ancient times. S. splendens grows throughout in Brazil and many other Asian countries such as India and China. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of S. splendens. In traditional medicine, it has been used in the treatment of dressing of wounds and also applied to itchy skin by the leaves of the plant, roots are mainly used for cold and cough, and seeds are mainly used for emetic, dysentery, hemorrhoids, and colic disorders. It also used for the treatment of diabetes, hematemesis, leukoderma, pruritis, intestinal disorder and as antipyretics, analgesic, and laxative. The fruits, stem roots, and leaves of this plant contain a variety of biologically active compounds such as anthraquinones, flavonoids, flavon-3-ol derivatives, alkaloid, glycosides, tannin, saponin, terpenoids, reducing sugar, and steroids those have various medicinal properties. The leaves stem and roots extract shows various activities such as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, antitumor, and antiulcer.</p> 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Elucidation of Lactoferrin and Lactoperoxidase in Separation Technique 2018-10-05T02:54:41+00:00 Goutam Mukhopadhyay <p>This review confers the biological properties of the glycoproteins lactoferrin (Lf) and lactoperoxidase (Lp). Lf is an iron-binding protein present in huge amounts in colostrum and breast milk, in external secretions, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Lp is a member of a large group of mammalian heme peroxidases that originates in exocrine secretions including milk. Lf holds numerous biological functions that contain roles in iron metabolism, cell proliferation, and differentiation, antibacterial, antiviral, and antiparasitic activity. Lp is accountable for the inactivation of an extensive range of microorganisms and hence significant in the defense mechanism in human secretions such as saliva, tear fluid, and milk. Lately discovered is the anticancer activity. Extraction of Lf and Lp can be done from raw milk by cation exchange chromatography. Separation and purification technologies can be achieved from whey and bovine milk by batch extraction, chromatographic techniques, and with hydrophobic ionic liquids. Polyclonal antibodies were made to purified breast milk Lf and used in an ELISA to estimate plasma concentrations in investigations of innumerable aspects of the inflammatory reaction. The usage of Lp system in the dairy industry and the possible applications of the Lp system in further food systems and commercial products are emphasized here. Milk Lf is used as a dietary constituent that endorses growth of gastrointestinal tract of human infants and newborn nonhuman animals instantaneously on birth. The paper as well highlights the investigation breach and promising forthcoming research directions that require consideration.</p> 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Studies of Valmiki National Park, Bihar with Reference to ecological Conservation 2018-10-05T02:57:56+00:00 Ravindra K. Singh <p>Judicious manipulation and conservation of habitat will increase the carrying capacities of the reserve area. Carrying capacity of dense forest is always little. Hence, the habitat of forest needs manipulation in a manner that forest is always kept at a minimum utilization during the different periods of the year. Habitat manipulation and conservation should always be done to benefit all wild animals without causing much disturbance to them. It includes conservation of soil and water, development of new water sources, improvement of food and cover, and control of grazing.</p> 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antiaging Effect of Leaves of Different Extract Salvia Splendens 2018-10-05T02:59:32+00:00 Abhilasha Mittal <p>The objective of the present work is to study the in vitro antioxidant activities of petroleum ether,<br>ethyl acetate, and methanolic extracts of leaves of Salvia splendens. The extracts were studied using<br>1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), total phenolic content (TPC), and total<br>flavonoid content (TFC). The TPC and TFC were estimated taking gallic acid and rutin calibration curve,<br>respectively. All the extracts possess in vitro antioxidant activities. However, the order of possessing<br>activities was methanolic &gt; ethyl acetate &gt; petroleum ether extracts of leaves S. splendens. The TPC and<br>TFC were highest in methanolic extract. It can be concluded that the extract of the leaves of S. splendens,<br>possess antioxidant activities. The methanolic extract of leaves of S. splendens possesses highest antioxidant<br>activity in-vitro.</p> 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Structural Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Cocculus hirsutus L. Leaf Extract by Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectroscopy 2018-10-05T03:01:28+00:00 G. S. Ranganayakulu <p>Many number of the plant species including Cocculus hirsutus L. is being used as the sources of herbal<br>medicine. Present work was mainly focused with the identification of the therapeutic properties of<br>C. hirsutus L. leaf extracts. The leaf extracts of methanol, aqueous, chloroform, and benzene showed<br>solvent dependent qualitative and quantitative phytochemical presence as well as antimicrobial activity.<br>Whereas the leaf extracts of methanol and chloroform showed significantly high antimicrobial activity<br>than water and benzene extracts. Further methanol leaf extract of C. hirsutus performed to liquid<br>chromato y-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) for identification of active antimicrobial compound structure.<br>LC-MS studies give 26 structural compounds. Docking (annotating) studies revealed that among 26<br>compounds the Compound-5 (Hexadecanoic acid - (1R, 2R, 3S, 4R, 6S)-4, 6-diamino-2, 3-dihydroxy<br>cyclohexyl 2,6-diamino-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranoside) showed highest docking fitness score with<br>the bacterial membrane protein sortase-A. Our data suggest that methanol extract of C. hirsutus leaf<br>possess medicinally significant antimicrobial compounds and thus justify the use of this leaf as folklore<br>medicine for preventing human microbial related diseases.</p> 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Isolation, Screening, and Characterization of Biosurfactant-Producing Microorganisms from Petroleum-Contaminated Soil and Further Optimization of Parameters for Biosurfactant Production 2018-10-05T03:04:45+00:00 Dr. Pooja Rana <p>Introduction: Biosurfactants are amphiphatic in nature and are surface-active compounds produced by microorganisms. These molecules reduce interfacial surface tension between aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. Unfortunately, oil spills and industrial discharges from petroleum-related industries have been identified as the major pollution sources. The hydrophobicity and low aqueous solubility of petroleum pollutant limit the biodegradation process. The features that make biosurfactants as an alternative to commercially synthesized surfactants are its low toxicity, higher biodegradability and, hence, greater environmental compatibility, better foaming properties, and stable activity at extreme pH, temperature, and salinity. Objective: Therefore, in this study, hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were screened from petroleum-contaminated soil, characterized and optimization of the physical and nutrient parameters were done to enhance the production of biosurfactants. Results: Petroleum-contaminated soil was collected from different petrol pumps in Pune and screening was done on minimal salt medium media containing palm oil as carbon source using hemolytic activity, emulsification index, drop-collapse test, and oil displacement method. The most promising strain was isolated and identified using Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Biology and 16s rRNA sequencing and was found to be Staphylococcus epidermidis. The optimization of various parameters, namely temperature, pH, carbon, and nitrogen sources on growth, and biosurfactant production was studied. The highest biosurfactant production was obtained when MSS media contains sucrose (carbon source) and urea (nitrogen source) at pH 10 and temperature 55°C. The Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) analysis of purified biosurfactant indicated the presence of lipopeptide biosurfactant when compared with reference FT-IR spectra.</p> 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Related Substances in Oxybutynin HCl Prolonged Release Tablets by Reverse-Phase High- Performance Liquid Chromatographic 2018-10-05T03:07:47+00:00 K. S. Natraj <p>Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination<br>of related compound of oxybutynin hydrochloride in pure form and pharmaceutical dosage forms.<br>Isocratic elution at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min was employed on a primesil-C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm,<br>3.5 μm SS) at 45°C. The mobile phase consisted of mixture of water:acetonitrile:triethylamine in the<br>ratio of 690:310:2 (%V/V), respectively, and the ultraviolet detection wavelength was 210 nm. The RT<br>value of oxybutynin hydrochloride, impurity-D, and impurity-A was found to be 13.75 min, 19.80 min,<br>and 24.89 min, respectively, with a run time of 60 min. The developed method was validated for linearity,<br>accuracy, precision, detection limit, quantification limit, robustness, specificity, and system suitability.<br>Results of all validation parameters were within the limits as per ICH guidelines.</p> 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Application of Validated High-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Degradation Study of Saxagliptin and Metformin HCl 2018-10-05T03:09:58+00:00 Imran A. Sheikh <p>A novel and simple reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been established for the determination of saxagliptin and metformin HCl Saxagliptin and metformin HCl is used to control Type 2 diabetes. The proposed work was performed on Young Lin (S.K) isocratic System UV Detector. Saxagliptin and metformin HCl is used to control Type 2 diabetes. The proposed work was performed on Young Lin (S.K) isocratic System UV Detector C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm). A mixture of potassium phosphate, mobile phase in this method with flow rate of 0.7 mL/min (UV detection at 203 nm) and the method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. Forced degradation studies were performed by exposing the drug saxagliptin and metformin HCl to acidic, alkaline, oxidation, and thermal stress degradations. The proposed reversed-phase-high-performance liquid chromatography method was found to be robust and specific, and this method is suitable for the assay of pharmaceutical dosage forms as well as kinetic studies.</p> 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Validated High-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Degradation Study of Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Silymarin 2018-10-05T03:11:51+00:00 Imran A. Sheikh <p>A novel and basic reversed-phase liquid chromatographic strategy has been set up for the determination<br>of ursodeoxycholic corrosive and silymarin and studies its degradation pattern in pharmaceutical<br>dosage forms. Ursodeoxycholic acid and silymarin are used to control Type 2 diabetes. The proposed<br>work was performed on Young Lin (S.K) isocratic System UV Detector C18 column (150 mm ×<br>4.6 mm). A mixture of potassium phosphate, mobile phase in this method with a flow rate of 0.7 mL/<br>min (UV detection at 203 nm) and the method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. Forced<br>degradation studies were performed by exposing the drug ursodeoxycholic acid and silymarin to<br>acidic, alkaline, oxidation, and thermal stress degradations. The proposed reversed-phase-highperformance<br>liquid chromatography technique was observed to be powerful and particular, and<br>this strategy is reasonable for the measure of pharmaceutical dose frames and in addition kinetic<br>examinations.</p> 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study on Quality of Soil: Part-II. Simultaneous Determination of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn in Soil Samples of Bhusawal Area by Square Wave Voltammetry, Differential Pulse Polarographic and Differential Pulse-anodic Stripping Voltammetry 2018-10-05T03:13:36+00:00 Manisha Patil <p>The analytical procedure has been developed for simultaneous determination of the toxic trace metals Cu, Pb, Cd, and Znin soil samples from Bhusawal, employing electrochemical techniques, namely square wave voltammetry, differential pulse polarographic, and anodic stripping voltammetry (DP-ASV) techniques at hanging mercury drop electrode. The soil samples were collected from Bhusawal area, at five points, in March 2016. The metals were made free from any interference, and the applicability of the method has been proved by the analysis of soil samples from polluted and non-polluted area. Accuracy is verified by employing atomic absorption spectrometry. Simultaneous determination by the polarographic and voltammetric method for studied four metals and calculation of concentration level of each metal in the collected samples from the selected area was studied. The results and conclusions were discussed.</p> 2018-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Medicinal Plant’s Potential Activity against Skin Disease-causing Bacteria and their Phytochemical Assessment 2018-11-13T02:04:46+00:00 Anshu Srivastava <p>Plants are the oldest remedies to cure ailments of mankind. They are a storehouse of bioactive compounds which serve as a lead for the development of therapeutics against many diseases including skin diseases. In the present study, leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos, Nerium indicum, Ricinus communis, and Ziziphus nummularia were selected and tested against common skin pathogens, namely Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The methanolic extracts of all the four plants were subjected to an assay for antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration. As antioxidants play a significant role in skin disease treatments, all the extracts were also evaluated for their antioxidant activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening and estimation of total phenolic content were carried out to establish its correlation with All the methanolic extracts showed good activity against the selected skin pathogens with significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. N. indicum and A. marmelos showed the highest zone of inhibition against all tested organisms. The extracts possessed potential antioxidant activity against reactive oxygen species with N. indicum exhibiting most potent activity. Further, preliminary phytochemical screening indicated presence high amount of alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins in A. marmelos and N. indicum. R. communis and Z. nummularia had the highest amount of phenolic content. The results of the study indicate that traditional knowledge can serve as a guideline to provide leads for further testing of potentially interesting plants to be used as modern treatment alternatives.</p> 2018-11-13T02:02:33+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##