International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive 2018-07-13T23:49:02+00:00 Mr. M A Naidu Open Journal Systems <div> <p>International Journal of Pharmaceutical &amp; Biological Archive(IJPBA) is published bimonthly by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Mandsaur University,Mandsaur</a>, Madhya Pradesh, INDIA. The Journal publishes Original reviews, Original research articles and short communications. The scope of the journal is to meet the need of Sciences and Pharmacy. It is essential that authors prepare their manuscripts according to established specifications. Failure to follow them may result in papers being delayed or rejected. Therefore, contributors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission. The manuscripts should be checked carefully for grammatical errors. All papers are subjected to peer review. Manuscripts could be submitted online from <a href="/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>Character of the publications:</p> <ul type="disc"> <li class="show">&nbsp;Scientific Biology <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Anatomy</li> <li class="show">Microbiology</li> <li class="show">Morphology</li> <li class="show">Taxonomy</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </li> <li class="show">Chemistry <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Analytical chemistry</li> <li class="show">Polymer chemistry</li> <li class="show">Spectroscopy</li> </ul> </li> <li class="show">Medicine <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Diabetology</li> <li class="show">Pharmacology and Pharmacy</li> <li class="show">Scientific disciplines:</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </li> </ul> </div> Diagnosis and Treatment of Neonatal Seizures - A Review 2018-07-09T02:07:28+00:00 Mehran Hesaraki <p>Over the past few decades, the prognosis of neonatal seizures has experienced considerable enhancement due to the improvement in neonatal and infant care. The mortality rate of neonatal seizures has fallen from 40% to 20%, and the relationship between electro encephalogram (EEG) and prognosis has become quite clear. The underlying cause of seizures is a major determinant of the outcome of the disease. For example, patients with secondary seizures and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy have only 50% chance of normal development and total recovery, while newborns with secondary seizures and subarachnoid hemorrhage or better hypocalcemia have higher chances of recovery. Searches were conducted by two independent researchers in international (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar) and national (SID and Magiran) databases for related studies from the inception of the databases to September 2017 (without time limitation) in English and Persian languages. It is possible to achieve accurate diagnosis through checking the history before birth and performing a thorough physical examination in some rare cases. Depending on the case, tests or additional actions can be done. EEG is the primary means for diagnosis and may exhibit paroxysmal activity in the difference between seizures or may produce electrographic seizures in cases where seizure is hidden or latent. One of the most important points in the treatment of neonatal seizures is the diagnosis of underlying cause (such as hypoglycemia, meningitis, drug deprivation, and trauma) because such diagnosis facilitates different approaches to control neonatal seizures. Most experts agree to control all clinical and electrographic seizures. Some others focus merely on clinical seizures. Most centers prefer the first approach. An important point before starting an anticonvulsant drug is to decide if the patient needs intravenous and luteinizing treatment with an initial bolus dose, or it can be easy to start treatment with a prescription for a long-acting medication based on the severity of seizure, duration, and frequency.</p> 2018-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Zinc as an Essential Nutritional Component of Human Body: A Systemic Review 2018-07-09T02:11:01+00:00 Mostafa Arabyaghoubi <p>Second to iron, zinc, which is widely distributed in the human body, is the most abundant element in human body. The human body has about 2–3 g of zinc, with the highest concentrations in the liver, pancreas, kidneys, bones, and muscles. Other tissues with a higher concentration of zinc include parts of the eye, prostate gland, spermatozoa, skin, hair, fingernail, and toenails. Searches were conducted by two independent researchers in international (PubMed, Web of science, Scopus, and Google scholar) and national (SID and Magiran) databases for related studies from the inception of the databases to September 2017 (without time limitation) in English and Persian languages. To ensure literature saturation, the reference lists of included studies or relevant reviews identified through the search were scanned. Absorption and excretion of zinc are carried out through hemostatic mechanisms that are not quite well known yet. The absorption mechanism consists of two paths. Albumin is the most important zinc plasma carrier. The amount transported in blood, in addition to zinc, depends on the availability of albumin. Zinc is a single intracellular ion with structural, catalytic, and regulatory roles. Zinc plays important structural roles as part of a multiprotein structure.</p> 2018-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Intestinal Flagellated Giardia Lamblia: A Systematic Review 2018-07-09T02:13:01+00:00 Mostafa Arabyaghoubi <p>There are four main common types of flagellated phlebotomy parasites: Giardia lamblia, Chilomastix Mesnili, Trichomonas hominis, and De Anenoba fragilis. In addition, there are also two other little tickles called Entropia hominis and retortamonas intestinalis. Except for Giardia and DeAneoba, there is no evidence of pathogenicity of other intestinal flagellated parasites. A pathogenic trichomoniasis called Trichomonas vaginalis is located in the genitourinary tract and another flagellated, called Trichomonas tenax, is found in the mouth. Searches were conducted by two independent researchers in international (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar) and national (SID and Magiran) databases for related studies from the inception of the databases to September 2017 (without time limitation) in English and Persian languages. To ensure literature saturation, the reference lists of included studies or relevant reviews identified through the search were scanned. The detection of the parasite is done to find the trophozoites in the fluids in the duodenum by intubating or inserting the yarn into the duodenum (enterostate) or duodenal biopsy. In addition, giardiasis can be used to determine the presence of parasites in fecal samples by ELISA or immunofluorescence, or by searching for antigens of Giardia in the stool by counterimmunoelectrophoresis, ELISA, and enzyme immunoassay</p> 2018-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Anti-Helminthic Activity of Leucas zeylanica Linn Leaves 2018-07-09T02:15:22+00:00 B. Radhika <p>The present study was examining the anti-helminthic activity of Leucas zeylanica leaves. For the present investigation, L. zeylanica leaves were collected in the month of January 2017 from Sai Nagar colony of the Karimnagar district. The leaves were dried and made into fine powder and subjected to acetone and ethanolic extraction by soxhlation, the phytochemical screening was done for extracts and the results showed that ethanolic and acetone extracts of the powdered leaves of L. zeylanica showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, and glycosides. Proteins and amino acids are absent. The extracts were studied for anti-helminthic activity against Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma, acetone and ethanolic extracts showed the dose-dependent activity by paralysis followed by the death of earthworms. The observation of result shows that the anti-helmintic activity of ethanol extract is more potent compare to the acetone extract. The earthworms were more sensitive to the extracts of ethanol at 20 mg/ml concentrations as compared to the reference drug albendazole (10 mg/ml).</p> 2018-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Scavenging Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Mukia Maderaspatana (L.) M. Roem. 2018-07-09T02:19:41+00:00 A. Arunprasath <p>Mukia maderaspatana belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae is an important plant described in Ayurveda. This plant is used for the treatment of a number of ailments such as urinary disorder and cardiac problems. The leaf of M. maderaspatana was extracted with different organic solvents in increasing order of polarity. The results of the preliminary investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, glycosides, and saponins. Antioxidant activity was assessed using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The results of antioxidant activity indicate that the methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of M. maderaspatana possess significant scavenging activity against DPPH (ethanolic solvent and methanolic solvent of 300 μg/ml each). This study revealed that the methanolic extracts of M. maderaspatana have demonstrated significant antioxidant activity.</p> 2018-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytochemical Evaluation and Antioxidant Activity of Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G.Don 2018-07-09T02:25:07+00:00 A. Arunprasath <p>The selected medicinal plant Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G.Don belongs to the family Apocynaceae, and it was collected in hillock of Muthu Malai hill in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. In the present study, preliminary phytochemical screening of H. pubescens a medicinal plant was carried out. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these plants confirms the presence of various secondary metabolites such as steroids, tannins, alkaloids, and phenols. The results suggest that the phytochemical properties for curing various ailments possess potential anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant and leads to the isolation of new and novel compounds. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed the existence of various compounds with different chemical structures. The presence of various bioactive compounds confirms the application of H. pubescens for various ailments by traditional practitioners. However, isolation of individual phytochemical constituents may proceed to find a novel drug. Extracts from H. pubescens showed varying antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activities when compared to Vitamin C, and the results suggest that the antioxidant activity of H. pubecens may contribute to their claimed medicinal property.</p> 2018-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity in leaves of Dodonaea viscosa L. 2018-07-09T02:27:28+00:00 A Arunprasath <p>The present investigation was focused on the phytochemical screening, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectral analysis, and antioxidant activity of Dodonaea viscosa using various organic solvent extracts. Ethanol and petroleum ether leaf extracts from the leaves D. viscosa were tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents, FT-IR analysis, and antioxidant was carried the qualitative analysis of phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, thiols, glycosides, resins, and saponins, and was richly present in petroleum ether and methanolic extracts compared to other extracts. The FT-IR spectrum showed the presence of carbonyls (C=O), phenol (C-O), thioethers (C-S), disulfides (S-S), normal polymeric O-H, phenolic compounds, and arylthio ethers. Plant extracts were screened for the antioxidant activity evaluating their 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in scavenging ability. The total ascorbic acid content of the extracts was also evaluated. The results revealed that D. viscosa had the best DPPH scavenging activity with a value of ethanolic extract and was better than that of the standard ascorbic acid extract gave the highest ascorbic acid content of D. viscosa.</p> 2018-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development, Characterization, and Isolation of Alkaloidal Fraction from Tephrosia purpurea and Evaluate its Wound Healing Activity 2018-07-09T02:30:19+00:00 Gaurav Dubey <p>A wound is a break in the skin. Wound is usually caused by cuts or scalps, and symptoms at wound or injury include swelling, stiffness, tenderness, discoloration skin tightness, itching, and scar formation, two types of tissue injury. Wound healing is a complex dynamic process. The main objective of this investigation is to study the development, characterization, and isolation of alkaloidal fraction from Tephrosia purpurea and evaluate its wound healing activity in various wound models such as excision, incision, dead space, and burn wound models. Various evaluation parameters such as wound contraction, epithelization time, tensile strength, wet and dry granuloma weight, and hydroxyproline estimation were performed. The main objective of this investigation is to develop a product, which may give a wound healing property, and enhance wound healing process such as increase the collagen synthesis, fibroblast proliferation, angiogenesis, and epithelization because products which are available in market are either antiseptic or antimicrobial.</p> 2018-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wound Healing activity of Leaves & roots of Pavetta Indica Linn of by using different extracts 2018-07-09T02:58:40+00:00 Satkar Prasad <p>Pavetta indica, which is known as kankara in Hindi, is widely distributed in the greater part of India. P. indica is a traditional medicinal plant having for various diseases. Objective: The aim of the present study to evaluate the wound healing activity on different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol) of leaves and roots of P. indica Linn. in albino rats using excision and incision wound models. Materials and Methods: The excision and incision wounds were inflicted on eight groups, each group having six albino rates and divided one group for control, six groups for test, and one group for standard treated with povidone iodine ointment. The parameter in excision observed was wound contraction and incision model was tensile strength. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the methanolic extract of P. indica ointment showed a significant healing in both wound models. The studies indicate that the root extracts of plant have more potent healing as compared to leaf extracts. Conclusion: The results further suggest that P. indica facilitates healing by increasing the rate and extent of wound closure and increased tensile strength in wounds subject to healing.</p> 2018-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of Metric Sexing Determination of Dry Hip Bones in Eastern Nepalese People 2018-07-09T03:01:01+00:00 Dr. Ram Lala Mallick <p>Skeletal characteristics differ among individuals. Each population, therefore, possesses specific standards to optimize their identification accuracy. As certain features (e.g., bones of human body and enamel of<br>tooth and skeletal) remain intact after death, these provide the precious tools for sexing of individuals<br>in either the field of medicine or related to prehistoric osteological collections. As the sex hormones<br>influence different reproductive function, the size-related sexual variations exist in nature remarkably.<br>In contrast, the hip bone is an ideal bone to use for sex determination. In spite of their critical use, the<br>findings for the determination of metric sexing with utilization of hip bones in Nepalese people still<br>remain unknown. We, therefore, collected human hip bones and carried out the study to determination<br>of metric sexing. Interestingly, our findings have made the present study of interest from anatomical,<br>anthropological, and forensic points of views.</p> 2018-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development and Validation of Reversed-phase High-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Benzoyl Peroxide and Resveratrol 2018-07-13T23:49:02+00:00 Manju Kamra <p>A new, reliable, and sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for simultaneous assay of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and resveratrol. An isocratic separation of BPO and resveratrol was achieved on C18, 250 mm × 4.6 mm I.d., 5 μm particle size columns with a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min and using a UV detector to monitor the elute at 245 nm. The mobile phase consisted of an ammonium acetate (pH 4) and ethanol. Response was a linear function of drug concentration in the range of 10–100 mg/mL range with an R2 of 0.993 for BPO and 10–100 μg/mL range with an R2 of 0.995 for resveratrol, accuracy with percent relative standard deviation of 100.65 ± 0.23 (benzoic peroxide) and 100.48 ± 0.45 (resveratrol) and with a limit of detection and quantification for BPO and resveratrol, respectively. The result of analysis has been validated statistically and by recovery study. The accuracy ranged between 99.65 and 101.91%. The method was found to be precise, reproducible, and rapid.</p> 2018-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##