International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive 2018-09-18T03:05:56+00:00 Mr. M A Naidu Open Journal Systems <div> <p>International Journal of Pharmaceutical &amp; Biological Archive(IJPBA) is published bimonthly by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Mandsaur University,Mandsaur</a>, Madhya Pradesh, INDIA. The Journal publishes Original reviews, Original research articles and short communications. The scope of the journal is to meet the need of Sciences and Pharmacy. It is essential that authors prepare their manuscripts according to established specifications. Failure to follow them may result in papers being delayed or rejected. Therefore, contributors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission. The manuscripts should be checked carefully for grammatical errors. All papers are subjected to peer review. Manuscripts could be submitted online from <a href="/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>Character of the publications:</p> <ul type="disc"> <li class="show">&nbsp;Scientific Biology <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Anatomy</li> <li class="show">Microbiology</li> <li class="show">Morphology</li> <li class="show">Taxonomy</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </li> <li class="show">Chemistry <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Analytical chemistry</li> <li class="show">Polymer chemistry</li> <li class="show">Spectroscopy</li> </ul> </li> <li class="show">Medicine <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Diabetology</li> <li class="show">Pharmacology and Pharmacy</li> <li class="show">Scientific disciplines:</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </li> </ul> </div> Hemovigilance and Blood Safety: A Review 2018-09-18T02:32:09+00:00 Geer Mohamed Ishaq <p>Blood transfusion has certain risks, and any unfavorable event occurring in a patient during or after transfusion, for which no other reason can be found, is called a transfusion reaction. These untoward effects vary from being relatively mild to severe and require rapid recognition and management. Transfusion services rely on transfusion reaction reporting to provide patient care and protect the blood supply. Unnecessary discontinuation of blood is a major wastage of scarce blood, as well as man, hours, and funds. Although strict procedures are applied during blood donations preparations and transfusions, errors in transfusion and infection complications still serve a problem in clinical practice. Hemovigilance is intended for the detection and analyzing all untoward effects of blood transfusion to correct their cause and prevent recurrence. In this review, we will discuss hemovigilance and transfusion-related adverse events.</p> 2018-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Hematological Study on Obligate Air Breathing, Fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) Exposed to Cythion 2018-09-18T02:41:50+00:00 Rina Kumari <p>An attempt has been taken to analyze the effect of cythion on the hematological parameters of an air-breathing fish Channa punctatus. It is found that this pesticide causes a significant reduction in red blood cell count, hemoglobin content, oxygen capacity, and packed cell volume</p> 2018-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Citicoline: A Review of Analytical Methods 2018-09-18T02:44:41+00:00 Kiran Bhardwaj <p>Citicoline is a nootropic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain insufficiency and other neurological disorders such as brain stroke, trauma, and Parkinson’s disease. This review article represents summarized results of published analytical methods in the literature for the determination of citicoline in biological and pharmaceutical formulations. Various techniques such as spectrophotometry, liquid chromatography (LC), high-performance LC, ultra performance LC, gas chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and hydrophilic interaction LC method were reported.</p> 2018-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Identification of Antibacterial Efficacy of Flavonoids of Anaegissus rotundifolia Against Some Pathogens 2018-09-18T02:48:08+00:00 Dr. Premlata Singariya <p>Introduction: Antibacterial efficacy of flavonoids (bound and free) of different parts (root, stem, bark, flower, and gum) of Anaegissus rotundifolia was evaluated against seven bacteria (Bacillus subtilis = Gram-positive, Escherichia coli, Raoultella planticola, Enterobactor aerogens, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens = Gram-negative bacteria). Material and Method: Flavonoids extracts of all the plant parts were found to possess strong antibacterial efficacy against these test pathogens, as revealed by zone of inhibition (ZOI [mm ± standard deviation]), activity index (AI), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC [mg/ml]), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC [mg/ml]), and total activity (TA [ml/g]) of extracts against each sensitive test pathogens were also evaluated. All the pathogens were found to be sensitive against these flavonoid extracts. Result: Flavonoid extract of the root and stem showed the best activity against B. subtilis (Gram-positive bacteria), ZOI (16.50 ± 0.24 mm), AI (1.100), MIC (0.078 mg/ml), and MBC (0.157 mg/ml). Highest TA (456.410 ml/g) of gum alkaloid was found against B. subtilis (G +ve bacteria). The findings of the present study suggested the exploitation of alkaloid extracts of Anaegissus rotundifolia for future antimicrobial drugs.</p> 2018-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evaluation of Controlled Release Tablet of Lamotrigine 2018-09-18T02:52:26+00:00 Swati Vishwakarma <p>Controlled drug delivery [16] can be defined as delivery of the drug at a predetermined rate and/or to a<br>location according to the needs of the body and disease states for a definite time period. Controlled<br>release drug administration means not only the prolongation of the duration of drug delivery, similar to<br>the objective in sustained release and prolonged release, but the term also implies the predictability and<br>reproducibility of drug release kinetics. Oral controlled release drug delivery system is one that provides<br>continuous oral delivery of drugs at predictable and reproducible kinetics for a pre-determined period<br>throughout the course of GI transit.</p> 2018-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Sulfate, Phosphate, Ammonia and Dissolved Oxygen on Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Marlimund Lake, Ooty, The Nilgiris 2018-09-18T02:54:52+00:00 J. Prescilla Devapriya <p>The present study was done to ascertain the level biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of Marlimund Lake situated in Ooty how it is related with the other parameters such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, sulfate, iron, and free ammonia. Four sampling sites were selected and studied over the period of 13 months from February 2016 to February 2017. The results were computed by best model fits applied for calculation using Curve Expert Version 4.2. The water temperature ranged from 8.1°C to 18.7°C, dissolved oxygen 3.468–6.976 mg/l, phosphate 0.1–1.92 mg/l, sulfate 1–18 mg/l, free ammonia 0.12–6.01 mg/l, and BOD 2.178–5.040 mg/l. BOD was found to be significantly related to dissolved oxygen (r = 0.5690291) by 4th degree polynomial fit, phosphate (r = 0.7095253) by rational function fit and free ammonia (r = 0.7395016) by MMF model fit, respectively. Sulfate was found to be nonsignificant (r = 0.2565396) by geometric fit model, and water temperature (r =0.4595060) shows a sinusoidal fit.</p> 2018-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Current Compensations in Emulsion Type Pharmaceutical Formulation: An Overview 2018-09-18T02:57:07+00:00 Chandrakant Mod <p>In modern years, the quantity of medicine and drug treatments has larger extremely which are moderately often more strong. Pharmacy research reveals exclusive data which is growing day by day. Emulsion are important dosage formulation they are continuously used from ancient time. In this overview we discuss the development of emulsion technology also focused on properties of emulsion &amp; formulation methods by different equipment used for this consideration. With different identification tests. Multiple emulsion, Microemulsion, Non-aqueous emulsion, Liposome emulsion, Emulsion polymerization, Nanoemulsion are new trends in emulsion technology.</p> 2018-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Study of Orbital Indices in Human Dry Skulls Obtained from People in Eastern Region of Nepal 2018-09-18T02:58:41+00:00 Ram L. Mallick <p>Aim: The aim of this study is to measure the known variables of orbital indices with utilization of human<br>dry skulls among people in eastern region of Nepal. Materials and Methods: The parameters (such as<br>orbital height [OH], orbital breadth [OB], and orbital index [OI]) were used for comparative analysis of<br>orbital indices in collected skull samples. Based on these morphological features, each human dry skull<br>was categorized into megaseme, mesoseme, and microseme groups. The determination of orbital indices<br>with known parameters (such as OH, OB, and OI) was carried out in next. Results and Discussion: Here,<br>we observed that abundantly 54% of people had OI &gt;89 that had laid us to report that majority of<br>population in this area belongs to the megaseme group. Mesoseme was next to grasp population as<br>32% of collected skulls were having OI values between 83 and 89. The remaining 14% were set into<br>microseme with OI values &lt;83. We further investigated the pattern of variation in both right- and leftsided<br>OH, OB, and OI, and their findings were peculiar to interestingly report in our study among people<br>residing in this part of the world.</p> 2018-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Atomic Spectroscopy Analysis of Heavy Metals in Plants 2018-09-18T03:00:23+00:00 G Mukhopadhyay <p>This study depicts a profile of existence of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Cd, Hg, As, and Pb) in some important medicinal plants such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eclipta alba, and Solanum nigrum using atomic absorption spectroscopy. H. rosa-sinensis, E. alba, and S. nigrum these are indigenous plants having tremendous medicinal properties. Extracts of these plants are already reported to have many pharmacological activities. The purpose of this study is to determine heavy metal contents in these medicinal plants. The findings of this study were compared with prescribed limits of these metals in the WHO guidelines, and the content of all these heavy metals was found to be within safe limits. These findings indicate that the extract of H. rosa-sinensis, E. alba, and S. nigrum is safe from the point of view of heavy metal toxicity.</p> 2018-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bioequivalence Study of the Two Products of Efavirenz by Validated Analytical Method 2018-09-18T03:03:07+00:00 Dr. Goutam Mukhopadhyay <p>The aim of this study was to find whether the bioavailability of a 600 mg efavirenz capsule (E.F.600 capsule, test) produced by Macneil and Argus Pharmaceutical Ltd. was equivalent to the tablet EFAVIR produced by the Cipla Ltd. (reference preparation). The pharmacokinetic parameters assessed in this study were area under the plasma –concentration time curve 0–96 h (AUCt), area under the plasma concentration time curve from time 0 to ∞ (AUCinf), the peak plasma concentration of drug (Cmax), time needed to achieve the peak plasma concentration (tmax), and the elimination half-life (t½). This was a randomized, single-blind, two-period, crossover study which included 20 healthy adult male and female subjects under fasting conditions. In each of the two study periods (separated by a washout of 1 week), single dose of test or reference drug was administered. Blood samples were taken up to 96 h past dose, the plasma was separated, and the concentrations of efavirenz were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography -UV method. Bioavailability and bioequivalence studies play a key role during the phase of drug development for both innovator drugs and generic drugs and thus have gained a great attention over the past few decades. Bioequivalence study is used to introduce generic drugs of innovator drugs at a lower cost. Hence, a thorough understanding of these bioavailability/bioequivalence studies is required.</p> 2018-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Separation of L-Phenylalanine by Solvent Sublation and Solvent Extraction Method 2018-09-18T03:05:56+00:00 Dr. Goutam Mukhopadhyay <p>Aims and Objectives: Separation and purification is a series of processes intended to isolate a single type of biomolecule from a complex mixture. Innovations in improvement of biodownstream processing, which is responsible for the separation of about 50–80% of recombinant proteins and other biomolecules, play a very important role in increasing the yield and reducing the cost of biopharmaceutical production. Methods: Biomolecule isolation and purification from a fermentation broth usually involve centrifugation, filtration, adsorption, and chromatography steps. Results and Discussions: Each step contributes to the product cost and product loss. Thus, we consider that solvent extraction and solvent sublation are the more economic processes for the separation of biomolecules. Conclusion: In extraction of phenylalanine, maximum extraction was observed at amino acid: surfactant ratio 1:1, amino acid: extractant ratio 1:1500, and pH at 3.1. The highest value of % recovery percentage and Co/Cw was 76.3 and 10.21, respectively. The main motive of this article is to provide the advantages of study on the solvent sublation and solvent extraction of l-phenylalanine over the other techniques.</p> 2018-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##