International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive 2018-04-26T07:30:23+00:00 Mr. M A Naidu Open Journal Systems <div> <p>International Journal of Pharmaceutical &amp; Biological Archive(IJPBA) is published bimonthly by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Mandsaur University,Mandsaur</a>, Madhya Pradesh, INDIA. The Journal publishes Original reviews, Original research articles and short communications. The scope of the journal is to meet the need of Sciences and Pharmacy. It is essential that authors prepare their manuscripts according to established specifications. Failure to follow them may result in papers being delayed or rejected. Therefore, contributors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission. The manuscripts should be checked carefully for grammatical errors. All papers are subjected to peer review. Manuscripts could be submitted online from <a href="/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>Character of the publications:</p> <ul type="disc"> <li class="show">&nbsp;Scientific Biology <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Anatomy</li> <li class="show">Microbiology</li> <li class="show">Morphology</li> <li class="show">Taxonomy</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </li> <li class="show">Chemistry <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Analytical chemistry</li> <li class="show">Polymer chemistry</li> <li class="show">Spectroscopy</li> </ul> </li> <li class="show">Medicine <ul type="circle"> <li class="show">Diabetology</li> <li class="show">Pharmacology and Pharmacy</li> <li class="show">Scientific disciplines:</li> <li class="show">Toxicology</li> </ul> </li> </ul> </div> Functional Foods for Replacing Chemical Filled Medicines 2018-04-26T05:44:18+00:00 Rummi Devi Saini <p>Consumers have shifted from an emphasis on satisfying hunger and taste to an emphasis on the use of food to promote their physical and mental health and to reduce the disease risk during the past two decades. People believe that eating the right food i.e. Functional food will increase their life. The change in consumer’s attitude towards food is mainly due to increased health care costs, desire to enhance personal health, advances scientific evidence that diet can reduce diseases risk etc. In this review a variety of functional foods are categorized according to this type of evidence supporting their chemical composition, functionality and recommended intakes. Their applications for controlling various diseases without using chemical filled medicines are also discussed. The safety concerns of functional foods are also raised.</p> 2018-04-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Photoprotection of Skin against Ultraviolet Radiations by Sunscreen 2018-04-26T05:50:40+00:00 Rummi Devi Saini <p><em>Nowadays, cosmetic products represent the most important market sector for producers after food. Consumers are in regular demand of products for beauty, antiaging, wellness, skin care and sunscreen. Sunscreen help to guard skin from UV rays, either chemically or physically. UV rays are generally consists of three forms UVA, UVB and UVC, and excessive exposure of these radiation may lead to pigment changes, pre-cancerous, cancerous skin, wrinkles and skin aging, along with activating other adverse light sensitive reactions based on disease aetiology and skin prototypes. The possible pathological changes due to use of sunscreen has been reviewed during the exposure to the UV rays. It is vital to protect skin and eyes from damaging effects as the skin is an important part of our immune system. Moreover, artificial sources of UV rays should be eluded including tanning beds and sunlamps without use of sunscreen. Surfaces such as snow,sand, concrete and water can reflect up to 80% of UV radiation, when around these surfaces, even when cloud weather because it filters less than 40 % of UV radiation, sun screen should be applied. The used sunscreen products should contain SPF of at least 15 and it is advisable to have enough beta carotene and antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E and Selenium when heavily exposed to sun radiation. In this review it is tried to summarize all possible issues related to sunscreens.</em></p> 2018-04-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review on Antibacterial Phytochemical Constitutions Present in Aerva lanata and their Mode of Action Against Bacterial Biofilm 2018-04-26T07:10:22+00:00 R. Rajasekaran <p><sub></sub>Antibacterial phytochemicals have unexplored chemical structures with high therapeutic potential, additionally; phytochemicals have several advantages, including green status, different mechanisms of action from antibiotics which could help to overcome the chemotherapeutic agent resistance problem and also ability to inhibit the growth of planktonic cell and biofilm. These phytochemicals are unmatched structural diversity, and it also has no target specific. In this study, an overview of the main classes of antibacterial phytochemicals present in Aerva lanata and their mode of action against bacterial biofilm is presented. A revision about the bacterial biofilm characteristics, biofilm formation, mechanism involved against antimicrobial agents, phytochemicals properties, and their targets to eradicate biofilm, anti-biofilm properties of various phytochemicals found in A. lanata is also done. The phytochemicals such as polyphenolics interfere with the adhesion potential, quorum sensing (QS) controlled, swarming motility and biofilm formation of Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Catechin and tannic acid also present in A. lanata were able to promote a significant reduction in biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa, and it able to block biofilm formation by E. coli and Pseudomonas putida. Antibacterial phytochemicals isolated from the different plant part of A. lanata inhibited and reduced cell-surface adhesion, methicillin-resistant bacterial biofilm formation, inhibit bacterial motility, QS, and controls biofilms of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Phenolic acids increased the susceptibility of dual species biofilms. Peptides react against bacterial biofilm by the process of cell membrane permeabilization, intracellular targets, inhibiting nucleic acids and protein synthesis, and cell wall adhesion of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.</p> 2018-04-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Spectroscopic and Colorimetric Determination of Meloxicam, Lornoxicam, Tenoxicam in Drugs 2018-04-26T07:12:07+00:00 A. A. Chaplenko <p>New approach to spectrophotometric and colorimetric determination of meloxicam, lornoxicam, tenoxicam in drugs using 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD chloride) is developed. The techniques are based on alkaline hydrolyses of oxicams with NBD chloride and the subsequent spectrophotometric and colorimetric determination of the colored products of reaction. The linearity range of calibration dependence is 1-10 mg/ml for lornoxicam and tenoxicam, 0.5-5 mg/ml for meloxicam. The advantages of developed methods are rapidity and cost-efficiency. This approach can be used for screening control of drug quality.</p> 2018-04-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biochemical Monitoring of Detoxifying Enzyme Levels in Field Population of Mosquitoes: Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) 2018-04-26T07:16:16+00:00 E. Pushpalatha <p>The major cause of resistance mechanism in mosquitoes is the detoxification and degradation of<br>insecticides by overproduction of various metabolic enzymes. Quantitative metabolic enzyme assays<br>of carboxylesterases (α and β), mixed function oxidases (MFO), and glutathione S-transferases (GST)<br>have been commonly used in the detection of insecticide resistance due to its sensitive nature even at low<br>frequencies. For the present study, larval strains of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L) were<br>collected from the Cochin Corporation, Kerala, India, and were assayed to organophosphate temephos<br>and carbamate propoxur. The resistance ratio of median lethal time for temephos and propoxur from the<br>field population of C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti is higher than the laboratory population. Elevated<br>levels of α and β esterase enzyme were observed with the ratio of 1.6 and 1.54 for C. quinquefasciatus<br>and 1.51 and 1.47 for A. aegypti. In Culex mosquitoes, 1.71, and in Aedes, 1.64 fold increase in GST<br>enzyme level and 1.38 and 1.3 fold increase for the MFO level determined. The study results revealed<br>the urgent needs of improving the vector control methods by introducing alternative techniques and<br>strategies against mosquitoes.</p> 2018-04-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study of the relation between testosterone levels and the severity of acne vulgaris among unmarried women at Al-Shati area, Libya 2018-04-26T07:18:20+00:00 Abdullah Najim Sheeba <p>Introduction: Acne vulgaris (AV) is long-lasting inflammatory illness of pilosebaceous unit and is clinically characterized by seborrhea and open and closed comedones, and in the severe cases, papules, pustules, nodules, deep pustules, and pseudocysts. The situation starts after adolescence and is a common skin disorder in adolescents and young grown person. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between testosterone levels and the states of AV among unmarried women. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 52 unmarried women, from which 26 women were with AV and 26 were used as control (age ranges were from 14 to 36 years). The patients were divided into three groups according to the severity of AV (sever, moderate, and mild). Results: Serum testosterone was significantly higher (P &lt; 0.05) in severe and moderate acne patients, while the serum testosterone level shows no significant difference in females with mild acne disease when compared with that of female control group (P ˃ 0.05). Conclusion: The conclusion of the study found a significant association between serum testosterone and severity of AV, and there was no correlation between the severity of AV and patients ages.</p> 2018-04-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antihyperglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effect of Azadirachta indica Leaves Aqueous Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Rabbits 2018-04-26T07:24:21+00:00 Mohammed S. A. Al-Awar <p>Introduction: In the present study, the hypoglycemic potentials of Azadirachta indica (AI) were studied in rabbits.The animals were divided randomly into four groups: Normal control, diabetic control, and two diabetic treated with AI groups. Method: An aqueous extract of AI fresh leaves was administered daily (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) for a period of 25 days to alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Fasting blood serum was analyzed for blood glucose, in the day 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 (every 5 days), cholesterol, high-density lipo protein, low-density lipoprotein, and triacylglycerides levels in the day 25 (the past day of experiment). The alloxan-injected rabbits exhibited hyperglycemia, indicating their diabetic condition. Result: At a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg, extract of AI was significantly effective in lowering serum glucose, and lipid profile levels in the AI-treated diabetic rabbits compared with the control diabetic rabbits. The present results indicate that AI possesses hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic potential. Conclusion: Thus, AI may be of great value in managing the hyperglycemia and some diabetic complications in human subjects.</p> 2018-04-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Antimicrobial Activity of Bauhinia X Blakeana Linn. Leaves and Flowers 2018-04-26T07:26:05+00:00 B. Radhika <p>Antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of leaves and flowers of Bauhinia x Blakeana was resolved against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microscopic organisms. Streptomycin was utilized as reference principles for examination of action. It was discovered that fluid concentrate has antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus leaves have good activity than flowers.</p> 2018-04-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Phytochemical and Physicochemical Study of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and Haldi (Curcuma longa) 2018-04-26T07:30:23+00:00 Renu Srivastav <p>Curcuma longa belongs to family and ocimum sanctum belongs to family lamiaceae. The phytochemical and physicochemical analysis was carried out for tulsi and haldi and haldi and a comparative study were done. Determination of total ash, acid insoluble, water soluble ash of tulsi and haldi were carried out by using standard procedure. The phytochemical screening has been done for different extract it revealed the presence of alkaloid, flavanoid, tannin, carbohydrate. Phytochemical and physicochemical parameters of Tulsi and haldi were stablished for their identification. The present study is focused on phytochemical and physicochemical study on haldi and tulsi. The qualitative physicochemical analysis was performed for the detection of secondary metabolites (viz. alkaloid, protein, tannin, saponin etc.).</p> 2018-04-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##