International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive <p style="text-align: justify;">B.R.Nahata Smriti Sansthan International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Archive (IJPBA) is published quarterly since 2010 by the Mandsaur University, Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh, India. Our journal is a quarterly journal and&nbsp;&nbsp; publishes four issues per year. The management of journal handling everything unbiased and maintains qualification of journal. The journal publishes original reviews, original research articles, and short communications. The scope of the journal is to meet the need of sciences and pharmacy. It is essential that authors prepare their manuscripts according to established specifications. Failure to follow them may result in papers being delayed or rejected. Therefore, contributors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission. The manuscripts should be checked carefully for grammatical errors. All papers are subjected to peer review. Manuscripts could be submitted online from&nbsp;<a href=""></a>.</p> <p>The character of the publications:</p> <ul> <li>&nbsp;Scientific Biology</li> <ul> <li>Anatomy</li> <li>Microbiology</li> <li>Morphology</li> <li>Taxonomy</li> <li>Toxicology</li> </ul> <li>Chemistry</li> <ul> <li>Analytical chemistry</li> <li>Polymer chemistry</li> <li>Spectroscopy</li> </ul> <li>Medicine</li> <ul> <li>Diabetology</li> <li>Pharmacology and Pharmacy</li> <li>Scientific disciplines:</li> <li>Toxicology</li> </ul> </ul> BRNSS Publication Hub, Mandsaur International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive 0976-3333 <h3>To,</h3> <p>Mr. M A Naidu</p> <p>Editor in Chief</p> <p><strong>International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Archive</strong></p> <p>Mandsaur Institute of Pharmacy</p> <p>Rewas-Dewda Road Near MIT Campus,Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh - 458 001</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Phone No:</strong> (07422) - 239115, 919907530044</p> <p><strong>Fax No: </strong>(07422) - 239115</p> <p>Mobile:09406674035<br><strong>E-mail:</strong> <strong><a href=""></a></strong></p> <p>Dear Sir,</p> <p>Sub: Submission of an original paper with copyright agreement and authorship responsibility ( submit by e-mail only)</p> <p>&nbsp;Topic entitled:</p> <p>&nbsp;I certify that I have participated sufficiently in the conception and design of this work and the analysis of the data (wherever applicable), as well as the writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it. I believe the manuscript represents valid work. I have reviewed the final version of the manuscript and approve it for publication. Neither has the manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my authorship been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in an attachment. Furthermore I attest that I shall produce the data upon which the manuscript is based for examination by the editors or their assignees, if requested.</p> <p>Kindly find it suitable to publish in your esteemed journal.</p> <p>Thanking you</p> <p>Yours sincerely,</p> <p>Author name and address&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Signature</p> A Review on Dry-powder Inhaler <p>In recent years, the pulmonary drug delivery system is found to be preferred route of administration for various drugs. It has been divided into three classes: Nebulizers, pressurized metered-dose inhalers, and dry-powder inhaler (DPI). This article focuses on the DPI formulation, principle of working, DPI devices, and evaluation parameters. DPI formulations consist of micronized drug blended with larger carrier particles, which enhance flow, reduce aggregation, and aid in dispersion. DPIs are commonly used to treat respiratory diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. DPI is formulated using four types of formulation strategies such as carrier-free, drug carrier, drug additive, and drug-carrier additive. The particle size of active pharmaceutical ingredients must be present in size range about 1–5 μm which also guarantee that the patient gets the same dose every time at different airflow rate. A DPI is a device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder. DPI devices can be categorized as capsule-based, blister based, canister/cartridge-based, and other types.</p> S. Y. Jadhav Copyright (c) 2020 S. Y. Jadhav 2020-01-11 2020-01-11 10 4 A Review on Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies of Fruit Prunus armeniaca Linn. <p>Apricot (Prunus armeniaca Linn.) fruit is good for human health and plays a very important role in our body. Literature studies revealed that apricot fruit has various biological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immune-stimulating functions that can be attributed to the content of many phenolic compounds. Apricot fruit contains various phytochemicals such as flavonoids, polyphenols, carotenoids, and phenolic acids by which there are changes in taste, color, and nutritional value of the fruit. The pharmacological studies show that it has anticancer activity which can be validated by clinical trials.</p> Dr. Suman Lata Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Suman Lata 2020-01-11 2020-01-11 10 4 Effect of Habitat Variability on Phenotypic Characters and Resource Allocation in Aralia cachemirica Decne. – An Endemic Medicinal Plant of Kashmir Himalaya <p>The present study was carried out to determine the impact of habitat variability on morphological features and resource partitioning of the species under study. The species exhibited great variability in its morphological traits under different environmental conditions. The plants were more vigorous and taller at Ferozpur Nallah site followed by Kashmir University Botanical Garden while Aharbal population was shortest. During the present study, it was observed that partitioning of resources is not uniform among different parts of a plant, much resources were allocated toward the root followed by the shoot then by leaves, and least amount of resources was allocated toward inflorescence among the studied populations. Our results present a detailed account of the variation of phenotypic characters and changes in resource allocation patterns in relation to environmental conditions of this medicinal plant species</p> Neelofar Majid Copyright (c) 2020 Neelofar Majid 2020-01-11 2020-01-11 10 4 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activity of Dioon spinulosum Dyer ex Eichl. <p>The present study was aimed to investigate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antibacterial studies of leaf and rachis of Dioon spinulosum Dyer ex Eichl. The phytochemical screening of the plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, carbohydrate, and phenols, whereas saponin was absent. The phenolic content expressed as mg/g gallic acid equivalent was determined and was more in methanolic extract of leaf (29.40 mg) than rachis (8.76 mg). Flavonoid contents were also greater in leaves than in rachis and methanol extract contained higher content (2.812 mg/g) than water (1.923 mg/g). Terpenoids were more in the aqueous extracts of both leaf and rachis when compared to methanol extracts. Antioxidant activity of both leaf and rachis extracts was conducted using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Leaf extract showed more DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 130 μg/ml when compared to the rachis of D. spinulosum Dyer ex Eichl. The reducing capability of the leaf extract was found to be more when compared to rachis. The antibacterial potential was evaluated with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans by agar well diffusion method. Antibacterial activity was observed only at higher concentration (1000 μg/ml) with inhibition zones of 12 mm and 13 mm.</p> Laija S. Nair Copyright (c) 2020 Laija S. Nair 2020-01-11 2020-01-11 10 4 Assessment of Effects of Traditional Exercise on Galvanic Skin Response, Pulse Rate, and Blood Pressure in Prehypertensive Patients Attending Out-patient Department Clinic of Janaki Medical College, Nepal <p>Psychological stress, in this era of urbanization, has become a part and parcel of our lives, has led to a serious problem affecting different life situations and carries a wide range of health-related disorders, and has to observe the effects of traditional exercise pranayama on galvanic skin response (GSR), pulse rate, and blood pressure (BP). This was an open-labeled, prospective, uncontrolled, single-centered, single-arm, comparative, and clinical intervention study conducted in the Department of Medicine, Janaki Medical College, for 2 months period January–February 2018 on 15 prehypertensive subjects. Of which 10 were male and 5 were females, all in the age group of 22–35 years with a body mass index of 19.63–30.11 with an average of 24.80. No significant change was seen when baseline GSR reading was compared with 15th-day reading, but on 30th day significant change observed. When the baseline value of pulse was compared with that of the 15th and 30th days, a good positive change was seen in resting pulse. Similarly, BP recording also showed a good positive effect when baseline value was compared with that 15th and 30th days. The study concludes that practicing Pranayama on a regular basis increases the parasympathetic tone and blunts the sympathetic tone of the body. This has shown good beneficial effects on pulse, BP, and GSR.</p> Dr. Rajesh Chandra Das Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Rajesh Chandra Das 2020-01-11 2020-01-11 10 4 Effect of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Pulmonary Function <p>Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic and vascular disorder affecting various organs and systems. Many studies have shown impairment of pulmonary functions in diabetics subjects, whereas some studies did not show any changes in pulmonary functions. Therefore, objective of the present study is to find out alterations in the pulmonary functions. Methods Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital among patients attending medicine department. The sample size was 200. A total of 100 known cases of DM without any acute or chronic lung disease and 100 healthy controls were included in the age group of 40–50 years. History of smoking was excluded in both groups. The diabetic subjects had at least 1 year of duration of disease. Intervention: Pulmonary function test (spirometry) was performed with NND TrueFlow Easy One™ diagnostic spirometer. Main Outcome Measures: The forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) were the primary outcome measures to assess the pulmonary functions. Results: In Phase 1 analysis, diabetic subjects did not show any changes in both FVC and FEV1 when compared with controls. In Pearson correlation test, a significant negative correlation between duration of disease and pulmonary functions, FVC at the level of 0.05 and FEV1 at the level of 0.01 were observed. However, in Phase 2 analysis, a significant reduction in FVC and FEV1 was observed in diabetic subjects with duration of diabetes more than 5 years. Conclusion: The decline in FVC and FEV1 in diabetic subjects is more likely to be the effect of DM. The decline is more pronounced with the duration of the disease.</p> Kanchana Nachimuthu Copyright (c) 2020 Kanchana Nachimuthu 2020-01-11 2020-01-11 10 4 Biofabrication of Silver Nanoparticles Using the Aqueous Extract of Weaver Ant’s Nest and their In Vitro Cytotoxicity <p>Environment has created creative and well-designed ways for developing nanomaterials having intriguing properties. Nanotechnology is having hope to open new avenues to combat and avert diseases using atomic-level fabrication of materials. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of weaver ant’s (Oecophylla smaragdina) nest and its characterization using valuable techniques such as ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy analysis. Cytotoxicity of newly synthesized silver nanoparticles was analyzed using the Vero cells. By analyzing the results critically, it is hypothesized that synthesis and stabilization of silver nanoparticles were achieved using the molecules present in the aqueous extract of O. smaragdina nest.</p> Chacko Vijai Sharma Copyright (c) 2020 Chacko Vijai Sharma 2020-01-11 2020-01-11 10 4 Comparative Study of Municipal Solid Waste Using by Lampito Mauritii and Eudrilus Eugeniae Earthworms Enhance for Microbial Enzyme Activity <p>Background: Industries development and population growth, migration of people from villages to cities, which release 1000 tons of municipal solid wastes (MSW) every day. India enormous quantities of disposable organic waste materials like MSW. MSW cannot be eaten directly by earthworms due to its bad odor, harmful insects, heat generates thermopile bacteria to organic wastes, etc. Hence, the organic wastes such as cattle waste – cow dung (CD) and agroindustrial waste-pressmud with clay soil high nutritive content were mixed in equal ratio and used as bedding material (BM). The experimental BMs were prepared on dry weight basis by mixing the MSW + BM in the following percentage: T1 – 20% BM + 80% MSW, T2 – 40% BM + 60% MSW, T3 – 60% BM + 40% MSW, and T4 – 80% BM + 20% MSW, and C1 control (BM alone) were also maintained separately. Results: The microbial enzyme activities such as cellulase, amylase, protease, and phosphatase were in the samples of (initial day), 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. The enzyme activity in the vermicompost has increased more than initial worm unworked compost. The maximum level of enzyme activity was observed in the vermicompost of T7 and it could be due to adequate moisture, higher fungal biomass, species-specific activity of earthworm (Eudrilus eugeniae) in terms of higher palatability, selective predation of microbes, and suitable environment, in the gut of E. eugeniae. Conclusion: The vermicompost obtained from T7 by E. eugeniae, on the basis of content of NPK, highest microbial population and enzyme activity was selected for the field application. The unutilized enormously available MSW can be vermicomposted along with any organic additives such as industrial Sludge’s, CD, sheep dung, pig manure, kitchen wastes (vegetable wastes), flower waste, and agricultural waste to convert into the valuable organic manure. In addition to this, it may be recommended that the vermicompost from MSW is utilized for sustainable organic agriculture.</p> Sriramulu Ananthakrishnasamy Copyright (c) 2020 Sriramulu Ananthakrishnasamy 2020-01-11 2020-01-11 10 4