International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive <p>B R Nahata Smriti Sansthan International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Archive (IJPBA) with&nbsp;<strong>ISSN: 2582-6050(Online)</strong>&nbsp;is an international Referred and Peer Reviewed Online and print Journal published by B.R. Nahata Smriti Sansthan for the enhancement of research&nbsp;and extension in Pharmaceutical and Biological discipline. &nbsp;</p> <p>Our journal is a quarterly journal and&nbsp;&nbsp; publishes four issues per year. The management of journal handling everything unbiased and maintains qualification of journal. The journal publishes original reviews, original research articles, and short communications. The scope of the journal is to meet the need of sciences and pharmacy. It is essential that authors prepare their manuscripts according to established specifications. Failure to follow them may result in papers being delayed or rejected. Therefore, contributors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing a manuscript for submission. The manuscripts should be checked carefully for grammatical errors. All papers are subjected to peer review. Manuscripts could be submitted online from&nbsp;<a href=""></a>.</p> <p>The character of the publications:</p> <p>Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacy, Medical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Biological, Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Discovery of novel bioactive chemicals from natural sources (including herbal medicines, marine organisms, and microorganisms), Structural modification of bioactive natural products and structure-activity relationship studies, Quality control of herbal medicines, Pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and clinical studies of natural products and herbal medicines, Biosynthesis and biocatalysis of natural products, Scientific Biology includes Anatomy, Microbiology, Morphology, Taxonomy, Toxicology, Chemistry includes Analytical chemistry, Polymer chemistry, Spectroscopy and Medicine includes Diabetology, Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Scientific disciplines, Toxicology and many other related fields..</p> BRNSS Publication Hub, Mandsaur International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive 0976-3333 <h3>To,</h3> <p>Mr. M A Naidu</p> <p>Editor in Chief</p> <p><strong>International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Archive</strong></p> <p>Mandsaur Institute of Pharmacy</p> <p>Rewas-Dewda Road Near MIT Campus,Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh - 458 001</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Phone No:</strong> (07422) - 239115, 919907530044</p> <p><strong>Fax No: </strong>(07422) - 239115</p> <p>Mobile:09406674035<br><strong>E-mail:</strong> <strong><a href=""></a></strong></p> <p>Dear Sir,</p> <p>Sub: Submission of an original paper with copyright agreement and authorship responsibility ( submit by e-mail only)</p> <p>&nbsp;Topic entitled:</p> <p>&nbsp;I certify that I have participated sufficiently in the conception and design of this work and the analysis of the data (wherever applicable), as well as the writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it. I believe the manuscript represents valid work. I have reviewed the final version of the manuscript and approve it for publication. Neither has the manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my authorship been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in an attachment. Furthermore I attest that I shall produce the data upon which the manuscript is based for examination by the editors or their assignees, if requested.</p> <p>Kindly find it suitable to publish in your esteemed journal.</p> <p>Thanking you</p> <p>Yours sincerely,</p> <p>Author name and address&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Signature</p> Review on Yashad Bhasma – A Herbometallic Preparation of Indian System of Medicine <p>Rasa Shastra an ancient science of pharmaceutics that primarily utilize metals and minerals in the form of Bhasma for therapeutic purpose. Yashad Bhasma – a zinc-based herbometallic preparation is a well-known bhasma (based on single metal) for its wide range of utilization in the treatment of eye diseases, anemia, diabetes, asthma, skin diseases, etc. Rasaka Satva is found mentioned in Rasarnava for the first time. Zinc is first described in Madanpal Nighantu under the name Yashad but not described things related to Yashad Bhasma. In Rasa Grantha, Ayurveda Prakasha was the first to describe Yashad as a Dhatu among Seven Dhatus (metals) and also described other things related to Yashad Bhasma. The present work aimed to collected and analyzed various references of Yashad Bhasma from available classical text. Various published articles were also searched and included to review updated knowledge regarding the Yashad Bhasma.</p> Surbhi Maheshwari Copyright (c) 2021-03-15 2021-03-15 12 1 A Review on Biomolecular Mechanisms of Parkinson’s Disease <p>Degeneration of catecholaminergic (dopamine) neurons in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta of the basal ganglia results in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The drug of choice is L-dopa, anticholinergics, amantadine, monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors, dopamine agonists, and catechol O-methyl transferase inhibitors are used. Therapeutic strategies are currently managing the symptoms of PD, but not curing the disease. This review draws insights on the molecular mechanisms driving the loss of brain cells in PD.</p> P. Sree Mahalakshmi Copyright (c) 2021-03-15 2021-03-15 12 1 Comparative Study of the Antioxidant Status and Inflammatory Markers in Type 2 Diabetic Male and Female Nephropathy Subjects <p>Background: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the microvascular complications of Type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Free radicals are formed disproportionately in diabetes by glucose oxidation, nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, and the subsequent oxidative degradation of glycated proteins. An abnormally high level of hyperglycemia generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) with simultaneous decline of antioxidant levels causing increased lipid peroxidation in T2DM leading microvascular complications. Aims and Objective: The study aimed to predict the development of diabetic nephropathy due to oxidative stress in type-2 male and female diabetic nephropathy subjects. Material and Methods: Serum levels of inflammatory markers (Interleukin-6 [IL-6] and Tumor necrosis factor alpha [Tnf-α]), antioxidants, [Glutathione reductase (GR) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), fasting blood sugar, urea and creatinine levels were estimated in controls (n=50, males and n=50, females) and T2DM with diabetic nephropathy ((n=50, males and n=50, females) and comparison was done. A Student’s t-test was used to estimate differences between the groups. All parameters were given as mean ± standard deviation. The criterion for significance was P &lt; 0.05. Conclusion: From our study, it was concluded that inflammatory markers, IL-6 and TNF-α, were found to be increased in type 2 female diabetic nephropathy subjects than male nephropathy subjects. Antioxidant Gpx enzyme levels are found to be decreased in the erythrocyte of both female diabetic nephropathy and male nephropathy subjects, however, decrease in Gpx level in female subjects was more than in male nephropathy subjects of type 2 diabetes.</p> Deepak Kafle Copyright (c) 2021-03-15 2021-03-15 12 1 Antibacterial effect of the leaf extracts of Ficus thonningii on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in Kebbi State, Northern Nigeria <p>The use of ethnomedicinal plants in the treatment of many ailments is very popular in the developing world. Ficus thonningii, commonly called the wild fig, has been used in numerous communities in Nigeria as an ethnomedicinal regimen. The phytochemical and antibacterial activities of the plant were carried out in this study. The aqueous extract of the leaves of F. thonningii was screened for antibacterial activity carried out by disc diffusion method while the minimum inhibitory concentrations and the minimum bactericidal concentrations were determined using broth dilution method. Phytochemical constituents present in the extract were alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, saponins, phlobatannins, and resins. In this analysis, the leave extracts inhibited the growth of test organisms at all concentration (30, 60, and 90 mg/ml) although with significant differences. The larger zone of inhibition was observed on Staphylococcus aureus which signifies that it is more susceptible to the leaves extract compared to Escherichia coli. The high antibacterial activity of the extract recorded on E. coli and S. aureus was encouraging at 90 mg/ml with inhibition zone of 3.9 ± 0.33 and 4.4 ± 0.26. The antibacterial activity of the extract was also compared with that of ciprofloxacin. This could be due to the secondary metabolites present in F. thonningii, it has been well documented that they possess significant antimicrobial activities that could invariably be useful in the development of safe chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of many bacterial infections.</p> Musa Galadima Copyright (c) 2021-03-15 2021-03-15 12 1 Genotyping of Hepatitis C Virus isolated from Libyan Patients by Line Immune Probe Assay <p>Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping is important in the routine diagnosis and management of chronic hepatitis C infections. The reference method used for HCV genotype determination is direct sequencing of the NS5B or E1 regions of HCV genome by means of “in-house” techniques followed by sequence alignment with prototype sequences and phylogenetic analysis. Material and Method: Blood samples were collected from 75 HCV- infected Libyan patients (age range 8–70 years mean 24 years), out of them 32 of them females (43%) and 43 males (57%). Forty-three (57.3%) have confection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Result: Out of the 75 samples examined in this study, 45 (60%) were found to belonging HCV genotype 4 followed by 20 (26.7%) subtype 1a. Other subtypes 2a/2c, subtype 1b; subtype 1a/1b; and genotype 2 all represented 5.3%; 5.3%; 1.3%; and 1.3%, respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, the distribution of HCV genotypes in Libya is consistent with other neighboring countries.</p> Suliman A. Elgadi Copyright (c) 2021-03-15 2021-03-15 12 1 Study on Epidemiology of Hypertension in a Tertiary Care Hospital <p>An epidemiological study of hypertension (HTN) was carried out in a tertiary care hospital located in Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. Several parameters such as gender, age, education, economic status, comorbid state, smoking habit of person, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, family history of HTN, salt intake, habit of drinking alcohol, physical activity of patients, waist-hip ratio, and medication usage in HTN were considered to assess the epidemiology of HTN. Results revealed that the prevalence of HTN was more in male than female patients with highest incidence in the age group of 40–60 years of age. Certain health risk factors such as urban areas, lower educational qualification, and higher BMI also affected significantly HTN. In addition, smoking habits, drinking habits, physical activity, comorbid state, and waist-hip ratio also influenced greatly the HTN in the studied population.</p> Mohd. Aasif Copyright (c) 2021-03-15 2021-03-15 12 1